1. Define cream
2 Explain the processing of cream
3. List the types of cream and explain its composition
Cream is a fat rich component that rises to the top portion of the milk when left undisturbed. During the process of separation of whole milk, two streams of milk are Produced, the fat-depleted stream, which is then used in the preparation of beverage milks and skim milk, and the fat-rich stream containing the cream with a fat content ranging from 35% to 45%. Cream is used for further processing in the dairy industry for the production of ice cream or butter, or sold to other food processing industries. For retail cream products, the fat is normally standardized to 35% and double cream has a fat content of 55% which makes it quite thick. Creams for packaging and sale in the retail market need to be pasteurized to destroy the presence of any pathogenic bacteria. Cream is rich in energy giving fat and fat-soluble Vitamins A, D, E, and K, depending on the fat level in cream.
(1) Composition of cream:
|Water||45.45 – 68.2%|
|Fat||25 – 60%|
|Protein||1.69 – 2.54%|
|Lacoste||2.47 – 3.71%|
|Ash||0.37 – 0.56%|
|Total Solids||31.8 – 54.55%|
|Solids not fat||4.55 – 6.80%|
(c)Manufacture of cream
When the milk is allowed to stand undisturbed for some time, there is a tendency for the fat to rise to the surface. This is due to difference in the specific gravity of fat and the rest Of the components of milk. However the gravity method of obtaining cream being very slow it is not commercially used for the separation of cream.
Centrifugal cream separators consist of a stack of conical discs housed in a separator bowl and rotated at high speed by an electric motor. The separator removes most of the milk fat from milk by centrifugal force. As the milk enters the bowl, it is subjected to a tremendous force. The difference in specific gravity affects the heavier portion of skim milk more intensely than the lighter cream; the skim milk is forced to the outer edge While the fat portion moves towards the centre of the bowl. The skim milk and cream are separated by being led trough separate outlets.
(d) Uses of Cream
1. The cream can be used for direct consumption in the form of table or Whipping or coffee cream.
2. It can be incorporated in the production of special dishes.
3. Cream acts as a raw material in the production of butter, ice cream, butter oil and ghee.
(e) Types of cream
Half and Half Cream (12% fat) Half and half is a mix of 1/2 whole milk and 1/2 cream, used as a cream in coffee. Half-and-half does not whip, but it can be used in place of whipping (heavy) cream in many recipes for less fat cooking.
Light cream/ Single Cream (18% fat) -Cream with a low fat-content, which does not thicken when beaten. Used in both sweet and savory dishes. Also know as light cream.
Whipping Cream (30% fat) Cream with enough butterfat in it to allow it to thicken when whipped. It does not whip as well as heavy cream but suitable for toppings and fillings Packed: Whipped cream is now ultra-pasteurized to extend its shelf life by killing bacteria and enzymes.
Heavy Cream (36 to 38%fat). This cream whips denser than whipping cream. Whips up well and holds its shape. Heavy Cream doubles in volume when whipped.
Double Cream (48%Fat) it is a little thicker than heavy cream. It contains about 48% butterfat.
Creme franchise is a matured, thickened cream that has a slightly tangy, nutty flavor and velvety rich texture. The thickness can range from that of commercial sour cream to almost as Sohd as room temperature margarine. It is used as a dessert topping and in cooked sauces and soups, where it has the advantage of not curdling when boiled.
Cream is a rich energy giving fat and also contains .vitamins which make the product tasty and rich. It improves the texture and body of the sauce or soup when added.